Question:

A person is accused of some crime and he is tried in a court of law. Now an advocate defends him in the court. The said advocate does not know whether the person has really committed the crime or not. Would it be legitimate for the said advocate to defend the said accused? In the case the accused is not represented/defended by an advocate, may be an innocent person may be punished.

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The profession of advocacy in itself is not prohibited.[1] This is a service rendered to the client for which an advocate can charge a fee.[2] However, this permissibility is subjected to three conditions:

1) A Muslim advocate is not allowed to plead the case of a person whom he believes to be unjust. Therefore, if he knows that his client has committed an offence, he is not allowed to plead for his innocence. The Holy Qur'an is very clear on this point where it says: 

"ولا تكن للخائنين خصيما"[3]
And do not be an advocate for those who have committed breach of trust.

Nevertheless, it is permissible for an advocate to plead for any concession given to the criminal under the law.

2) It is not allowed for a Muslim advocate to help his client in claiming a right which is disapproved by the Shari'ah

3) A Muslim advocate is not allowed to use prohibited means to advance the case of his client like false statement, forged documents etc.

In the enquired case, if the advocate trusts that his client is truthful[4]  and honest[5] and there won`t be any violations of Shariah[6] in representing him, then it will be permissible to represent such a client.[7] 

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

AbdulMannan Nizami

Student Darul Iftaa
Chicago, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


[1]  أشرف الهداية ،كتاب الوكالة، ص١٤٦، دار الاشاعت

[2]  والعناية شرح الهداية، كتاب الوكالة، ص٣٢٦، دار الكتب العلمية

[3] القرآن ،سورة النساء، ١٠٥

[4] عون المعبود، كتاب القضاء، ج٦،ص٤٢٠، دارالحديث القاهرة

[5]  قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ، وَإِنَّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُونَ إِلَيَّ وَلَعَلَّ بَعْضَكُمْ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَلْحَنَ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنْ بَعْضٍ، فَأَقْضِيَ لَهُ عَلَى نَحْوِ مَا أَسْمَعُ مِنْهُ، فَمَنْ قَضَيْتُ لَهُ مِنْ حَقِّ أَخِيهِ بِشَيْءٍ، فَلَا يَأْخُذْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا، فَإِنَّمَا أَقْطَعُ لَهُ قِطْعَةً مِنَ النَّارِ» (سنن ابي داود، باب في قضاء القاضي اذا أخطأ)

[6] عون المعبود، كتاب القضاء، ج٦،ص٤٣٣،دارالحديث القاهرة

[7]  عُدِلَتْ شَهَادَةُ الزُّورِ بِالْإِشْرَاكِ بِاللَّهِ» ثَلَاثَ مِرَارٍ، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ {فَاجْتَنِبُوا الرِّجْسَ مِنَ الأَوْثَانِ وَاجْتَنِبُوا قَوْلَ الزُّورِ حُنَفَاءَ لِلَّهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ (سنن ابي داود، باب في شهادة الزور)

KHARWASTAN

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