How do we calculate years of missed salaah? What intention do we make when doing these salaah?
Assalaamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakaatuh
In the case of a male, Salaah becomes compulsory from the time he becomes baaligh (physically matured). In the case of a female, Salaah becomes compulsory when she attains puberty. If one does not become baaligh or attain puberty by the age of 15 years according to the lunar calendar, then Shariah declares one to be baaligh and regarded as being responsible to execute the laws of Shariah.
When calculating the missed Salaah, it should be from the time one is baaligh or from the time one attained puberty. Apply ones mind and make an honest estimation of the Salaah that was missed over the years. Qazaa will have to be made of the Farz Salaah as well as the Witr Salaah. In calculating, it is advisable as a matter of precaution to make an over estimate.
At the time of making Qazaa, the intention for every missed Salaah should be, this is my first Qazaa Salaah. When that Salaah is fulfilled now the next Salaah now becomes the first Qazaa Salaah and so forth.”
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
 فَصْلٌ. Darul - Mukhtaar Vol.6 Page 153
(بُلُوغُ الْغُلَامِ بِالِاحْتِلَامِ وَالْإِحْبَالِ وَالْإِنْزَالِ) وَالْأَصْلُ هُوَ الْإِنْزَالُ (وَالْجَارِيَةِ بِالِاحْتِلَامِ وَالْحَيْضِ وَالْحَبَلِ) وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ الْإِنْزَالَ صَرِيحًا لِأَنَّهُ قَلَّمَا يُعْلَمُ مِنْهَا (فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ فِيهِمَا) شَيْءٌ (فَحَتَّى يَتِمَّ لِكُلٍّ مِنْهُمَا خَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً بِهِ يُفْتَى) لِقِصَرِ أَعْمَارِ أَهْلِ زَمَانِنَا
 الفتاوى الهندية - ط. دار الفكر (1/ 124)
وَلَوْ تَرَكَ الظُّهْرَ وَالْعَصْرَ من يَوْمَيْنِ وَلَا يَدْرِي أَيَّتَهُمَا تَرَكَ أَوَّلًا تَحَرَّى فَإِنْ لم يَكُنْ له رَأْيٌ يُعِيدُ ما أَدَّى أَوَّلًا مَرَّةً أُخْرَى عِنْدَ أبي حَنِيفَةَ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ إذْ يُمْكِنُهُ مُرَاعَاةُ التَّرْتِيبِ بِطَرِيقِ الِاحْتِيَاطِ وَالِاحْتِيَاطُ وَاجِبٌ في الْعِبَادَاتِ وَقَالُوا لَا نَأْمُرَهُ إلَّا بِالتَّحَرِّي وَيَسْقُطُ عنه التَّرْتِيبُ لِعَجْزِهِ فَلَا يَلْزَمُهُ الْأَدَاءُ مَرَّتَيْنِ هَكَذَا في مُحِيطِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ
 الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 7)
(قَوْلُهُ كَثُرَتْ الْفَوَائِتُ إلَخْ) مِثَالُهُ: لَوْ فَاتَهُ صَلَاةُ الْخَمِيسِ وَالْجُمُعَةِ وَالسَّبْتِ فَإِذَا قَضَاهَا لَا بُدَّ مِنْ التَّعْيِينِ لِأَنَّ فَجْرَ الْخَمِيسِ مَثَلًا غَيْرُ فَجْرِ الْجُمُعَةِ، فَإِنْ أَرَادَ تَسْهِيلَ الْأَمْرِ، يَقُولُ أَوَّلَ فَجْرٍ مَثَلًا، فَإِنَّهُ إذَا صَلَّاهُ يَصِيرُ مَا يَلِيهِ أَوَّلًا أَوْ يَقُولُ آخِرَ فَجْرٍ، فَإِنَّ مَا قَبْلَهُ يَصِيرُ آخِرًا، وَلَا يَضُرُّهُ عَكْسُ التَّرْتِيبِ لِسُقُوطِهِ بِكَثْرَةِ الْفَوَائِتِ. وَقِيلَ لَا يَلْزَمُهُ التَّعْيِينُ أَيْضًا كَمَا فِي صَوْمِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ وَاحِدٍ، وَمَشَى عَلَيْهِ الْمُصَنِّفُ فِي مَسَائِلَ شَتَّى آخِرَ الْكِتَابِ تَبَعًا لِلْكَنْزِ وَصَحَّحَهُ الْقُهُسْتَانِيُّ عَنْ الْمُنْيَةِ، لَكِنْ اسْتَشْكَلَهُ فِي الْأَشْبَاهِ وَقَالَ إنَّهُ مُخَالِفٌ لِمَا ذَكَرَهُ أَصْحَابُنَا كَقَاضِي خَانْ وَغَيْرِهِ وَالْأَصَحُّ الِاشْتِرَاطُ. اهـ.
قُلْت: وَكَذَا صَحَّحَهُ فِي الْمُلْتَقَى هُنَاكَ، وَهُوَ الْأَحْوَطُ، وَبِهِ جَزَمَ فِي الْفَتْحِ كَمَا قَدَّمْنَاهُ فِي بَحْثِ النِّيَّةِ وَجَزَمَ بِهِ هُنَا صَاحِبُ الدُّرَرِ أَيْضًا.
الفتاوي التاتارخانية، ٢/٤٥٤، مكتبة زكريا
إذا أراد أن يقضي الفوائت ذكر في فتاوي أهل سمرقند أنه ينوي أول ظهر لله عليه. و في الكافي: و لو لم يقل الأول ول الآخر و قال نويت الظهر الفائتة جاز، و في الحجة: و لو قال نويت قضاء أقرب صلاة ظهر جاز، و كذالك يقول لكل صلاة
To abstain from haraam food, clothing and earnings. (Muslim, Tirmidhi)
To make Dua with sincerity. In other words, one should firmly believe that nobody but Allah Ta’ala will fulfill his objectives. (Haakim)
One should perform a good deed prior to making the Dua & he should mention this during the course of the Dua. For e.g. He should say, O Allah! I had performed so & so deed solely for Your pleasure. O Allah! accept my Dua due to the barakah of that deed. (Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud).
To make Dua whilst one is pure & clean. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Nasai, Ibn Hibbaan, Mustadrak).
To make wudhu before the Dua (All six major hadith collections)
To face the Qiblah (All six major hadith collections)
To sit as in the Tashahhud position (Abu Awanah)
To praise Allah Ta’ala at the beginning as well as at the end of Dua (All six major hadith collections)
To convey Durood/salawaat upon Rasulullah salallahu alaihi wasallam at the beginning as well as the end. (Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad)
To spread out both the hands. (Tirmidhi, Mustadrak)
To raise both the hands up to the shoulders (Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad)
To sit with humility and respect. (Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud)
To mention ones helplessness and dependence. (Tirmidhi)
To abstain from raising the eyes towards the sky whilst making Duaa (Muslim)
To mention the Asmaal-Husnaa (the names of Allah Ta’ala ) and the sublime qualities of Allah Ta’ala. (Ibn Hibbaan and Mustadrak)
To abstain from ceremonies rhyming of the Duaa phrases (Bukhari)
To abstain from saying the Dua in a “sing-song” tone if the Dua is in a poetic form (Hisn)
To make the Dua in a soft voice (All six major hadith collections on the authority if Abu Musa)
To utter the Dua phrases transcribed from Rasulullah sallalahu alaihi wasallam because Rasulullah Didn’t leave out a single need of the Deen nor of the dunya whilst teaching us how to make Dua (Abu Dawud/Nasai)
To make a Dua that encompasses most of the needs of Deen and the dunya. (Abu Dawud)
To make Dua in favour of oneself first, thereafter ones parents and to include the other Muslims in the Dua as well (Muslims)
If the Imam is making Dua, he should not make Dua for himself only but he should Include all the congregation in the Dua (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
Abu Dawud rahimahullah narrates that Rasulullah salallahu alaihi wasallam said that the Imam who makes Dua for himself only, has betrayed the people.” In other words, the Imam should not Make a Dua that is restricted to him alone. For e.g. He should not say, “O Allah! cure my son.” or “O Allah! Return my lost item.” etc. but he should make a Dua that includes all the congregation for e.g. He may say “O Allah! Forgive us and have mercy upon us.”
To make Dua with firm conviction (for e.g. he should not say: “O Allah! If you wish fulfil so and so task of mine.” (All six major hadith collections)
To make Dua with enthusiasm & yearning. (Ibn Hibbn & Abu Awana).
As far as possible endeavour to bring about a “presence of heart and mind” and cherish a high hope of the Dua being accepted. (Haakim)
To make Dua repeatedly. (Bukhari, Muslim)
This repetition should be at least thrice (Abu Dawud)
Note One may repeat the Dua thrice in one sitting or he may repeat it on three different occasions. The “repetition of the Dua” can be interpreted in both ways.”
To make Dua earnestly and insistently. (Nasai, Hakim, Abu awanah)
To abstain from making Dua of severing family ties or other sins. (Muslim, Tirmidhi)
Avoid making Duas of pre-determined and fixed things (for e.g. woman should not make a dua of being transformed into a man or a tall person shouldn’t make Dua thus: “O Allah! Make me short.” etc) (Nasai).Don’t Make Duaa for impossible things. (Bukhari)
Don’t make a Dua in which you ask Allah Ta’ala to confine His mercy to yourself only (Bukhari, Abu Dawud, Nasai, Ibn Majah)
Ask only Allah Ta’ala alone for all your needs. Do not depend upon His creation. (Tirmidhi/Ibn Hibbaan)
The one making the Dua as well as the person listening to it, both should say ‘Aameen’ at the end. (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasai)
Rub both hands over the face at the termination of the Dua (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibbaan, Majah, Hakim)
Don’t be impatient over the acceptance of Duas. In other words, don’t say: “I’ve made Dua repeatedly but to no avail.” (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasai, Ibn Majah)
Whenever I pray Namaz, before I pray my intention is to pray my full Namaz, pray slowly so that it is meaningful and accepted by Allat swt. Every single Namaz literally, any namaz I pray I always tend to forget how many rak`aats I have performed. My mind is so distractable, it has always been like thios, not only in Namaz, I get distracted really easily, so my mind drifts off elsewhere in Namaz. This is so important for me because as hard as I try, when I have intention to pray, I say I will be focused, but I just always lose concentration.
It is so bad, there is never a Namaz where I have `100% fully completed it without done another Rak`at as I was unsure how many I had done etc. I made dua also for Allah swt to help me concentrate. What can I do about this and how to address this matter? Could you please help me?
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
The purpose of Salah is to attain the closeness of Allah and thus a person should condition the mind before commencing Salaah. The spiritual journey of Salaah begins from the time of performing Wudhu. When washing the limbs, a person should think, “this is the face, these are the hands and feet I will be presenting to Allah. How shameful I feel of my sins of the eyes, ears, mouth, hands and feet.” Make dua and hope for the sins to be forgiven through Wudhu so that one may present his pure self to Allah, and enjoy the spirituality through Salaah.
Consider the following Ahadith on the virtues of Wudhu and its effect in purifying one`s self:
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
“When a believing servant makes Wudhu and washes his mouth, the sins committed by his mouth are washed out. When he cleans his nose, the sins are cleansed from his nose. When he washed his hands, the sins of his face are washed off, even from under the eyelids. When he washes his hands, the sins of his hands are washed off, even from beneath the nails of his hands. When he wipes his head, the sins from his head come off, even from his ears. When he washes his feet, the sins of his feet are washed off, even from under his toe nails. Then his walking to the Masjid and prayers are rewarded separately”.
Furthermore, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) also said:
“My Ummah will be called and distinguished on the Day of Judgement as a people with bright and radiant faces and limbs from the effect of their Wudhu practices. Whoever among you can increase his radiance should do so”.
When an individual commences Salaah, he should assume that he is seeing Allah or at the least have conviction that Allah is seeing him. Only the honoured guests are greeted well and welcomed in the home by a host. The prayer mat is a palace; Allah is our host and we are his guests. Would a person want his gift of Salaah to be honoured and taken by the angels to Allah, upon which Allah is pleased, or extend a prayer which barely reaches the heavens and is thrown back at him? Allah is not in need of our prayers; we are in need of Him.
The person should focus on the majestic presence and powers of Allah and proclaim the opening Takbir “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the greatest of everything) from the deep recess of his heart with the concentration that indeed Allah is the greatest. Not only is a person raising his hand when proclaiming the Takbir, but he is, in fact, shunning the world and all its thoughts and temptations behind him, expressing his weakness and emptiness before Allah, asking Allah to rescue him from the ocean of sins, and submitting himself to the will of Allah. A person should be feeling grateful of being honoured the privilege of talking to his Creator. Each prayer of a person should be observed as his last prayer and that perhaps he may not live for the next Salaah. The heart, soul, mind and all the limbs should be attentive to communication with The Al-Mighty.
The individual must concentrate on the purity, majesty and glorification of Allah when reciting Thanaa (praising Allah). If a person is unaware of the meaning of Surah Faatiha and the Surah joint, he must at least concentrate on the words and their pronunciation and acknowledge that he is conversing with Allah and that ‘this is the speech of my Lord`. Allah is responding to us at the end of the verses of Surah Faatiha. The Qur`an is blessed and Allah only gives the opportunity of its recitation to whom He wishes by His ultimate mercy. The opportunity to spread the prayer mat and to stand before him is a sign of His willingness to accept us and forgive all our sins.
When bowing down into Ruku, the person should demonstrate total humility and express his need and dependency on the Lord of the universe. One should with utmost love and sincerity proclaim “Subhaana Rabbi al-Azeem” (My great Lord is pure and free from all weaknesses and defects) with all my heart.
When prostrating into Sajdah, the individual must condition the mind that each limb from forehead till toes is in servitude, beseeching and glorifying his Master. Once again proclaim “Subhana Rabi al-A’la” (pure is my Allah who is the highest of all). Ever Rak`at should be read with such devotion, concentration and consciousness of the omnipotent and omniscient presence of Allah.
When sitting in Tashahhud and reciting the Attahiyyaat, ponder on the spiritual and amazing night-journey of Me`raj (the ascension) undertook by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) wherein he made a heavenly declaration of submission through the Attahiyyah to Allah. Verily, Salaah is the Me`raj of a believer. Extend salutation on Prophet (peace be upon him) with love and invoke Allah for his ultimate mercy and acceptance.
When making Salam to the right and left, make intention of greeting the angels. Upon completion of Salaah, ask for forgiveness from Allah for not being able to fulfill the rights of Allah in Salah. After completion, a person should supplicate, ‘Oh Allah, accept my Salaah and make the coolness of my eyes in Salaah’.
In the case of a male, when performing Salaah behind an Imaam, especially in an inaudible Salaah, if one cannot concentrate and fears the mind wondering about, recite “Allah, Allah” in one`s mind to be able to concentrate.
This level of concentration and consciousness will require an effort. A person may begin performing Salaah which is shorter but with full concentration and then gradually increase the length of the Salaah. As the standard of concentration increases, so will the spirituality of the heart revive and provide contentment and support in all aspects of your life.
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Hanif Yusuf Patel
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.
 عن عبد الله الصنابحى رضى الله عنه، قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: إذا توضأ العبد فمضمض خرجت الخطايا من فيه فإذا استنثر خرجت الخطايا من أنفه فإذا غسل وجهه خرجت الخطايا من وجهه حتى تخرج من تحت أشفار عينيه فإذا غسل يديه خرجت الخطايا من يديه حتى تخرج من تحت أظفار يديه فإذا مسح برأسه خرجت الخطايا من رأسه حتى تخرج من أذنيه فإذا غسل رجليه خرجت الخطايا من رجليه حتى تخرج من تحت أظفار رجليه ثم كان مشيه إلى المسجد وصلاته نافلة
[Muwatta Imam Malik & Nasa`i, In Mirqat al-Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al-Masabih, 1: 354-5, Dar al-Fikr]
عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : إذا توضأ العبد المسلم أو المؤمن فغسل وجهه خرج من وجهه كل خطيئة نظر إليها بعينيه مع الماء أو مع آخر قطر الماء، فإذا غسل يديه خرج من يديه كل خطيئة كان بطشتها يداه مع الماء أو مع آخر قطر الماء، فإذا غسل رجليه خرجت كل خطيئة مشتها رجلاه مع الماء أو مع آخر قطر الماء حتى يخرج نقياً من الذنوب
[Saheeh Muslim, 1:148, In Mirqat al-Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al-Masabih, 1: 345-6, Dar al-Fikr]
 عن أبي هريرة رضى الله عنه ، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: إن أمتى يدعون يوم القيامة غرا محجلين من آثار الوضوء. فمن استطاع منكم أن يطيل غرته فليفعل
[Saheeh al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim, In Mirqat al-Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al-Masabih, 1: 350, Dar al-Fikr]
 ... قال ما الإحسان؟ قال: أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك
[Saheeh al-Bukhari, 1:19]
 (ولها آداب) تركه لا يوجب إساءة ولا عتابا كترك سنة الزوائد، لكن فعله أفضل (نظره إلى موضع سجوده حال قيامه، وإلى ظهر قدميه حال ركوعه،وإلى أرنبة أنفه حال سجوده، وإلى حجره حال قعوده. وإلى منكبه الأيمن والأيسر عند التسليمة الأولى والثانية) لتحصيل الخشوع
[Tanweer al-Absar ma`a ad-Durr al-Mukhtar, 1:477, H.M. Saeed Company]
[Fatawa Mahmodiyya, 6:625, Dar al-Iftaa Jamiah Farooqiyah, Karachi]