Juridical Codifications

Question:

 

1. SAA, Emirates, BA, etc. Have a frequent flyer program.

 

To join is free & on accumulating certain amount of base miles you attain

different statuses which allow you different rewards.

 

With the miles you can redeem free flights & can upgrade seats etc.

 

Is the above shariah compliant?

 

2. Linking Voyager with Diners Card

 

Diners club offers a credit card with an option of paying an annual fee, you

can link your Voyager card to attain miles on a spend basis. Currently on

every R7.50 you spend, you receive 1 Voyager mile.

 

Is the above Sharia compliant?

 

3. Diners Lounge Access

In order for a card holder to receive access to the Diners Lounge @ the

airport, I'm required to spend a minimum amount in the year.

 

If I don't meet the spend requirements, I can pay to use the lounge.

 

Is the above sharia compliant?

 

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

1. Frequent Flyer Program: Rewards received from such programs are permissible as they are considered to be goodwill and a gift from the airline.[1]

 

2. Linking Voyager Card with Diner Card: It is permissible to receive benefits by paying an annual fee[2] to link your Voyager Card with your Diners Club Card. This is an admin fee for the management and services provided by the company through the Frequent Flyer Program[3].

 

3. Diners Lounge Access: Since you are not required to pay a separate fee for applying for such a program, it is considered goodwill from the company[4] to allow you access to the Diner's lounge for free upon reaching a certain spending limit[5]. Therefore, participation in such a scheme is permissible.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Bilal Mohammad

Student Darul Iftaa
USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net

 



[1] Fatawa Darul 'Uloom Zakariyya, vol. 5, pg. 559, Zam Zam Publishers;

 

أَمَّا رُكْنُ الْهِبَةِ فَهُوَ الْإِيجَابُ مِنْ الْوَاهِبِ فَأَمَّا الْقَبُولُ مِنْ الْمَوْهُوبِ لَهُ فَلَيْسَ بِرُكْنٍ اسْتِحْسَانًا... (وَجْهُ) الِاسْتِحْسَانِ أَنَّ الْهِبَةَ فِي اللُّغَةِ عِبَارَةٌ عَنْ مُجَرَّدِ إيجَابِ الْمَالِكِ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَرِيطَةِ الْقَبُولِ وَإِنَّمَا الْقَبُولُ وَالْقَبْضُ لِثُبُوتِ حُكْمِهَا لَا لِوُجُودِهَا فِي نَفْسِهَا فَإِذَا أَوْجَبَ فَقَدْ أَتَى بِالْهِبَةِ فَتَرَتَّبَ عَلَيْهَا الْأَحْكَامُ

(بدائع الصنائع، ج ٨، ص ٨٤-٨٥، دار الكتب العلمية)

 

[2] Fatawa 'Uthmani, vol. 3, pg. 355, Maktabah Ma'ariful Quran;

Asr-e-Hadhir Ke Pechidah Masaail, vol. 2, pg. 193 & 197 & 198, Altaf and Sons;

Fatawa Darul 'Uloom Zakariyya, vol. 5, pg. 388, Zam Zam Publishers

 

[3] المادة ٤٢١: النوع الثانى عقد الإجارة علي العمل كاستيجار...أرباب الحرف و الصنائع

(شرح المجلة، ج ٢، ص ٤٨١، مكتبة رشيدية)

 

المادة ٤٥١:يشترط في الإجارة أن تكون المنفعة معلومة بوجه يكون مانعا للمنازعة

المادة ٤٥٥: تكون المنفعة معلومة في استيجار اهل الصنعة بببيان العمل يعني بتعيين ما يعمل الأجير أو تعيين كيفية عمله

[قال الأتاسي]  يعني أن معلومية المنفعة في استيجار اهل الصنعة إنما تكون ببيان العمل بيانا يرفع الجهالة المؤدية الي المنازعة

(شرح المجلة، ج ٢، ص ٥٣٢-٥٣٨، مكتبة رشيدية)؛

 

(قَوْلُهُ وَشَرْطُهَا إلَخْ) هَذَا عَلَى أَنْوَاعٍ: بَعْضُهَا شَرْطُ الِانْعِقَادِ، وَبَعْضُهَا شَرْطُ النَّفَاذِ، وَبَعْضُهَا شَرْطُ الصِّحَّةِ، وَبَعْضُهَا شَرْطُ اللُّزُومِ...(قَوْلُهُ كَوْنُ الْأُجْرَةِ وَالْمَنْفَعَةِ مَعْلُومَتَيْنِ) أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ فَكَقَوْلِهِ بِكَذَا دَرَاهِمَ أَوْ دَنَانِيرَ وَيَنْصَرِفُ إلَى غَالِبِ نَقْدِ الْبَلَدِ، فَلَوْ الْغَلَبَةُ مُخْتَلِفَةً فَسَدَتْ الْإِجَارَةُ مَا لَمْ يُبَيِّنْ نَقْدًا مِنْهَا فَلَوْ كَانَتْ كَيْلِيًّا أَوْ وَزْنِيًّا أَوْ عَدَدِيًّا مُتَقَارِبًا فَالشَّرْطُ بَيَانُ الْقَدْرِ وَالصِّفَةِ وَكَذَا مَكَانِ الْإِيفَاءِ لَوْ لَهُ حِمْلٌ وَمُؤْنَةٌ عِنْدَهُ، وَإِلَّا فَلَا يُحْتَاجُ إلَيْهِ كَبَيَانِ الْأَجَلِ

(رد المحتار علي الدر المختار، ج ٦، ص ٥، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)؛

 

[قال الحصكفي](وَ) يُعْلَمُ النَّفْعُ أَيْضًا بِبَيَانِ (الْعَمَلِ كَالصِّيَاغَةِ وَالصِّبْغِ وَالْخِيَاطَةِ) بِمَا يَرْفَعُ الْجَهَالَةَ

 (رد المحتار علي الدر المختار، ج ٦، ص ٩، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)

 

[4] (قَوْلُهُ كِتَابُ الْهِبَةِ) هِيَ لُغَةً التَّفَضُّلُ عَلَى الْغَيْرِ بِمَا يَنْفَعُهُ وَلَوْ غَيْرَ مَالٍ وَاصْطِلَاحًا مَا أَشَارَ إلَيْهِ الْمُصَنِّفُ (قَوْلُهُ هِيَ تَمْلِيكُ الْعَيْنِ بِلَا عِوَضٍ) وَشَرَائِطُ صِحَّتِهَا فِي الْوَاهِبِ الْعَقْلُ وَالْبُلُوغُ وَالْمِلْكُ...وَفِي الْمَوْهُوبِ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَقْبُوضًا غَيْرَ مُشَاعٍ مُتَمَيِّزًا غَيْرَ مَشْغُولٍ عَلَى مَا سَيَأْتِي تَفْصِيلُهُ وَرُكْنُهَا هُوَ الْإِيجَابُ وَالْقَبُولُ وَحُكْمُهَا ثُبُوتُ الْمِلْكِ لِلْمَوْهُوبِ لَهُ غَيْرَ لَازِمٍ...

(قَوْلُهُ وَقَبُولٍ) أَيْ صَحَّتْ الْهِبَةُ بِالْإِيجَابِ وَالْقَبُولِ فِي حَقِّ الْمَوْهُوبِ لَهُ لِأَنَّهُ عَقْدٌ فَيَنْعَقِدُ بِهِمَا كَسَائِرِ الْعُقُودِ قَيَّدْنَا بِكَوْنِهِمَا فِي حَقِّ الْمَوْهُوبِ لَهُ لِأَنَّهَا تَصِحُّ بِالْإِيجَابِ وَحْدَهُ فِي حَقِّ الْوَاهِبِ... (قَوْلُهُ وَقَبْضٍ بِلَا إذْنٍ فِي الْمَجْلِسِ وَبَعْدَهُ بِهِ) يَعْنِي وَبَعْدَ الْمَجْلِسِ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ الْإِذْنِ صَرِيحًا فَأَفَادَ أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ الْقَبْضِ فِيهَا لِثُبُوتِ الْمِلْكِ لَا لِلصِّحَّةِ وَالتَّمَكُّنُ مِنْ الْقَبْضِ كَالْقَبْضِ

(البحر الرائق، ج ٧، ص ٢٨٤-٢٨٥، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)

[5] Jami'ul Fatawa, vol. 4, pg. 329, Idarah Talifaat-e-Ashrafiyyah;

Asr-e-Hadhir Ke Pecheedah Masaail, vol. 2, pg. 198, Altaf and Sons;

Fatawa Darul 'Uloom Zakariyya, vol. 5, pg. 388, Zam Zam Publishers

Question:

Please tell me the shares of how my estate will be divided.

I have a wife, 3 daughters, and 2 sons.

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

From the outset, it is important to understand that the correct allocation of the shares of one’s estate can be only be done after his/her demise, taking into consideration the heirs he is survived by. One may not draw up a will and include in it the shares that are to be distributed to the heirs. This is due to the possibility of one of the heirs passing away before him/her.

Nonetheless, for knowledge purposes, hereunder is a breakdown of the shares your heirs will be entitled to upon your demise, after all bequests and dues have been paid off, and subject to all of them being alive at the time of your demise:

 

  • Your wife will receive 1/8 of the estate (12.5%).
  • The 2 sons and 3 daughters will receive the remaining 7/8 of the estate at the ratio of 1:2 (1 share for the daughters and 2 shares for the sons). Hence, each daughter will receive 1/8 (12.5%) and each son shall receive 2/8 (25%).

 

The demise of any one of the heirs shall result in the apportioned shares changing dramatically. Furthermore, if you are survived by both parents or any one of the parents, they will inherit and again the shares will change accordingly.

 

 

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

Nabeel Valli

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net

Question:

What is the ruling regarding post mortem in Islam, it is required by the South African law to do a post mortem, how can we avoid this.

I am currently a medical student, it is the norm to cut open dead bodies to study the parts of the human body. Is this permissible?

 

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

There are two issues in reference to your query:

Post mortem

Medical studies

 

Post mortem is an examination of a corpse in order to determine cause of death. The process entails the deceased person’s body being opened, the organs being removed and examined in close detail.

Post mortem is impermissible as it violates the sanctity of a human body due to mutilating the human body[1]. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is reported to have said:

          كسر عظم الميت ككسره حيا

Translation: Mutilating the body of a deceased person by breaking his limbs is tantamount to doing it to a living person[2].

 

However, if the post mortem is carried out due to the requirement of the law of the country, then one will be excused.[3].

 

It is not permissible to dissect a cadaver and remove the parts and limbs for educational purposes. As a medical student, you should excuse yourself from actively participating in dissecting a cadaver[4]. You may observe the cadavers that are being dissected.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

Hanif Yusuf Patel

Student Darul Iftaa
UK

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net



[1] ولقد كرّمنا بني آدم

[Al-Qur`an, 17: 70]

  ولا يجوز بيع شعور الإنسان ولا الإنتفاع بها؛ لأن الآدمي مكرم لا مبتذل، فلا يجوز أن يكون شيئ من أجزائه مهانا ومبتذلا ... اھ

[Fat`h al-Qadir, (al-Bay` al-fasid), 6: 425, Mustafa alBabi al-Halabi, Egypt; Radd al-Muhtar ala ad-Durr al-Mukhtar, 5: 58, H.M. Saeed Company; al-Fatawa al-Alamgiriyyah, (Al-Karihiyah: at-Tadaawi wa al-Mu`alijat), 5: 354, Maktabah Rashidiyyah]

[Fatawa Mahmudiyyah, 18: 340-6, Dar al-Iftaa Jamiah Faruqiyyah Karachi]

[2] [Mishkat al-Masabih, (al-Jana`iz – fi an-Nah`y an kasr izam al-mayyit, p. 149, Qadimi Kutub Khana; Sunan Ibn Majah, p. 116, Qadimi Kutub Khana; Musnad al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, 7: 87 (Hadith no. 23787), Dar Ihya at-Turath al-Arabi

[3] قال الفقهاء: يضاف الفعل إلى الفاعل لا الآمر ما لم يكن مجبرا

[4] كل ما يؤدي إلى ما يجوز لا يجوز

[Ad-Durr al-Mukhtar ma`a Radd al-Muhtar (Al-hazar wa al-Ibahah: fi al-libas), 6: 360, H.M. Saeed Company]

واستدل بالآية على أن الطاعة إذا أدت إلى معصية راجحة وجب تركها، فإن ما يؤدي إلى الشرّ شرّ

[Ruh al-Ma`ani, 7: 252, Al-An`am: 108, Dar Ihya at-Turath al-Arabi Beirut; Mirqat al-Mafatih Sharh mishkat al-masabih, (Al-Buyu`: al-Kasab wa talab al-halal), 6: 16 (Hadith no.2763), Maktabah Rashidiyyah]

KHARWASTAN

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