Juridical Codifications

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

1) Imam Abu Hanifas full name was Numan bin Thabit bin Numan bin Marzuban. He was born in Kufa in the year 80 and passed away in 150 after hijrah. After studying the basics of Deen, Imam Saheb engaged himself in trade. Later on through the guidance and encouragement of Imam Shabi (Rahimahullah) he left his occupation and dedicated all his time towards gaining the knowledge of Deen from the Tabieen.  

 

Imam Abu Hanifa dedicated his time to seek the knowledge of Deen under the tutelage of approximately four thousand great scholars the likes of Ata bin Abi Rabah, Alqamah bin Marthid, Imam Baqir, Salama bin Kuhail, Ibrahim al Nakhai, Imam Shabi and Imam Zuhri. They were regarded as the giants of knowledge and authorities in Deen.  

 

Imam Suyuti (911) (Rahimahullah) mentions that Imam Tabari (478) (Rahimahullah) has a write up on a few ahadith from  Imam Abu Hanifa (Rahimahullah) which proves that he actually met the following Sahaba: Anus bin Malik, Jabir bin Abdullah, Abdullah bin Jaza al Zubaydi, Maqal bin Yasaar, Wathila bin al Asqa and Aisha bint Ujrah (Radiallahu Taala Anhum Ajmaeen)

 

It is mentioned in the hadith:

عن أبي هريرة، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: لو كان الدين عند الثريا، لذهب به رجل من فارس - أو قال - من أبناء فارس حتى يتناوله()

Abu Hurairah (Radiyallahu Anhu) narrates that Rasulullah Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam said: If Deen was suspended from Pleiades and the Arabs are unable to reach it, then a man from the sons of Persia will be able to reach it. (Muslim-2546 Darul Fawaid) [1]

 

Alama Suyuty (Rahimahullah) mentions that this hadith refers to Imaam Abu Hanifa (Rahimahullah). The reason being that there was no one equivalent to that level of knowledge during his time. [2]

 

Not only was Imam Abu Hanifa (Rahimahullah) an Imam in fiqh, but he was extremely pious and was a man of taqwa. Consider the following praises about him from his contemporary’s: [3]

 Yazid ibn Harun (Rahimahullah) (118 – 206) said: I have not seen anyone more intelligent, nor more virtuous, nor more reliable than Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah).

 Yahya ibn Ma‘in (Rahimahullah) (233) said: I heard Yahya al-Qattan (196) say: We have sat in the company of Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah), by Allah, and we heard from him. By Allah, when I would look at him, I recognised in his face that he feared Allah! (Tarikh Baghdad 15:482)

 Yahya ibn Ayyub al-Zahid (Rahimahullah) (168) said: Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah) would not sleep at night i.e. he would stay awake in worship. (Tarikh Baghdad 15:483)

Ibn ‘Uyaynah (Rahimahullah) (197) say: My eyes have not seen the like of Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah). (Tarikh Baghdad 15:460)

 

Ibn al-Mubarak (Rahimahullah) (181) said:

 “As for the best faqih of people, he is Abu Hanifah.”

“I have not seen the like of him in fiqh.”

“If anyone has the right to issue verdict (Ijtihad) using his opinion, then, Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah) has the right to issue a legal verdict using his opinion.”

“When [the opinions] of these two, meaning al-Thawri and Abu Hanifah (Rahimahumullah), converge on something, that is strong.” (Tarikh Baghdad 15:470)

 

2) We follow the fiqh of Imam Abu Hanifa (Rahimahullah) to be able to correctly follow Shariah, the Quraan and the Sunnah. [4]

3) You may go to the following links for more details on Imam Abu Hanifa:

http://darulmaarif.com/the-salafs-acceptance-of-imam-abu-hanifah/#one

http://darulmaarif.com/the-testimony-of-the-salaf-on-imam-abu-hanifahs-excellence-in-fiqh/#one

http://darulmaarif.com/narrations-on-the-piety-and-character-of-imam-abu-hanifah/#one

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

Ismail Dawoodjee

Student Darul Iftaa
Zambia 

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

Daruliftaa.net

 

[1] شرح مشكل الاثار ج6 ص62 موسسة الرسالة

[2] ترجمة تبيض الصحيفة (امام اعظم ابو حنيفة) دار القلم لاهور

مكانة الاملم ابي حنيفة بين المحدثين جامعة دراسة الاسلامية

[3]تاريخ بغداد دار الغرب الاسلامى بيروت

[4] تعريف المذهب الحنفى: هو عبارة عن اراء الامام ابي حنيفة و اصحابه المجتهدين في المسائل الاجتهادية االفرعية و تخريجات كبار العلماء من اتباعهم بناء على قواعدهم و اصواهم او قياسا على مسائلهم و فروعهم (المذهب الحنفى ص29 مكتبة الرشد)

Question:

 

What do the Quran and Hadith say about blood transfusion?

 

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Blood transfusion as defined by WebMD is a medical treatment that replaces blood lost through injury, surgery, or disease. The blood goes through a tube from a bag to an intravenous (IV) catheter and into your vein.[1] Since this process involves inserting blood from an external source back into the body, it holds certain Shar'ī implications that affect the ruling of such a procedure. Due to this reason, we believe it is best to first outline our general ruling on blood transfusions before stating the proofs for such a procedure[2]:

It is permissible to donate and transfuse blood if:

a) There is a desperate need to donate blood

b) There is no other alternative

c) This has been prescribed by an expert medical practitioner.

This permissibility is based on the principal of ‘necessity relaxes prohibition’. (Al-Ashbaah).

 

However, the permissibility of blood donation and blood transfusion is determined by the following conditions:

a) The donor willingly donates his blood. If he is compelled to do so, it will not be permissible

b) There is no danger to his (the donor’s) life or health

c) If the doctor feels that the patient will lose his life and there is no other alternative but recourse of blood transfusion

d) There is no fear of death but the recovery is not possible without blood transfusion.

It is not permissible to sell one’s blood or to pay the blood donor. However, if one is in need of blood desperately and the only means to obtain the blood is to purchase it, then only will it be permissible to pay for the blood.[3]

In order to understand this ruling from the Quran and ahādīth, we shall first quote the necessary Quranic verses:

(1) Allah Ta'ālā says in the Holy Quran:

وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا

And We bestowed dignity on the children of 'Adam and provided them with rides on the land and in the sea, and provided them with a variety of good things and made them much superior to many of those We created.[4]

This verse outlines the fact that Allah Ta'ālā has granted man superiority over others and further given him status and honor in front of all other creations. As such, each part of a man also deserves utmost respect due to this sanctity bestowed to humankind by Allah the Almighty. Based on this verse, many fuqahā have deduced that it is impermissible for someone to use any part of a human for personal benefit regardless of what part it may be, externally or internally.[5]

(2) Allah Ta'ālā says in the Holy Quran:

إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ

He has only forbidden you: carrion, blood, the flesh of swine and that upon which a name other than 'Allah' has been invoked.[6]

In another verse Allah Ta'ālā states:

أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَى طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنْزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ

Say, "I do not find, in what has been revealed tome, anything prohibited for anyone who eats it, unless it be carrion or blood that has flowed out, or flesh of swine - because it is impure - or there be a sin by invoking on it the name of someone other than Allah..."[7]

It is clear from these two verses that blood is considered to be najas (impure).[8] As such, it would not be permissible for one to take benefit from something that is impure by inserting it into one's own body.[9]

 

Under the context of these two verses, it is not feasible to use the blood of a human for two reasons:

  1. 1.It is impure.
  2. 2.It is against the dignity of a human body.

(3) Within the same verses mentioned above, Allah Ta'ālā says:

فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ

So whoever is compelled by necessity, neither seeking pleasure nor transgressing, then there is no sin on him.[10]

Based on this part of the verse, many mufassirīn and fuqahā have deduced that in times of dire need, in order to save one's life it will be permissible for one to use substances that were originally harām or impure (e.g. blood) for medical purposes.[11]

 

Many 'Ulamā have also deduced the same ruling from the following hadīth[12]:

عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ: قَدِمَ أُنَاسٌ مِنْ عُكْلٍ أَوْ عُرَيْنَةَ، فَاجْتَوَوْا المَدِينَةَ «فَأَمَرَهُمُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، بِلِقَاحٍ، وَأَنْ يَشْرَبُوا مِنْ أَبْوَالِهَا وَأَلْبَانِهَا»

Anas (radiyallahu anhu) said: "Some people of `Ukl or `Urainah tribe came to Medina and its climate did not suit them. So the Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) ordered them to go to the herd of camels and to drink their milk and urine (as a medicine)..."[13]

A similar narration has also been mentioned by Imam at-Tirmidhī in his Sunan.[14]

This hadīth shows that the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) allowed the people of 'Urainah to use a haram substance (i.e. the urine of camels) for medicinal purposes when they were inflicted with disease. Similarly, if one were to use blood, which is originally harām and impure, at a time of dire need for medicinal purposes, it would be permissible for one to do so in accordance with the conditions mentioned at the beginning of this answer.[15]

 


And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Bilal Mohammad

Student Darul Iftaa
USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net



[1] "Blood Transfusion", WebMD, accessed on March 24, 2014, http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/blood-transfusion-overview

[2] The following answer has been extracted from fatwaa 13689 on Askimam.org; it may be found at the following link: http://askimam.org/public/question_detail/13689.html

 

[3] Kitabul Fatawa, vol. 6, pg. 212-214, Zam Zam Publishers;

Kifayatul Mufti, vol. 9, pg. 153-155, Darul Isha'at;

Fatawa Mufti Mahmud, vol. 11, pg. 251, Jami'ah Publications;

Fatawa Mahmudiyyah, vol. 18, pg. 328-333, Darul Iftaa Jami'ah Faruqiyyah;

 

يَجُوزُ لِلْعَلِيلِ شُرْبُ الدَّمِ وَالْبَوْلِ وَأَكْلُ الْمَيْتَةِ لِلتَّدَاوِي إذَا أخبره طَبِيبٌ مُسْلِمٌ أَنَّ شِفَاءَهُ فيه ولم يَجِدْ من الْمُبَاحِ ما يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ

(الفتاوي الهندية، ج ٥،  ص ٣٥٥، مكتبة رشيدية)

 

[قال الحصكفي] (وَالْحُقْنَةُ) لِلتَّدَاوِي وَلَوْ لِلرَّجُلِ بِطَاهِرٍ لَا بِنَجَسٍ وَكَذَا كُلُّ تَدَاوٍ لَا يَجُوزُ إلَّا بِطَاهِرٍ وَجَوَّزَهُ فِي النِّهَايَةِ بِمُحَرَّمٍ إذَا أَخْبَرَهُ طَبِيبٌ مُسْلِمٌ أَنَّ فِيهِ شِفَاءً وَلَمْ يَجِدْ مُبَاحًا يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ.

[قال ابن عابدين](قَوْلُهُ نَفْيُ الْحُرْمَةِ عِنْدَ الْعِلْمِ بِالشِّفَاءِ) أَيْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَقُمْ غَيْرُهُ مَقَامَهُ كَمَا مَرَّ. وَحَاصِلُ الْمَعْنَى حِينَئِذٍ: أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَذِنَ لَكُمْ بِالتَّدَاوِي، وَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ دَاءٍ دَوَاءً، فَإِذَا كَانَ فِي ذَلِكَ الدَّوَاءِ شَيْءٌ مُحَرَّمٌ وَعَلِمْتُمْ بِهِ الشِّفَاءَ، فَقَدْ زَالَتْ حُرْمَةُ اسْتِعْمَالِهِ لِأَنَّهُ تَعَالَى لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ

(رد المحتار علي الدر المختار، ج ٦، ص ٣٨٩، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)

 

[قال الحصكفي] (وَبَوْلُ مَأْكُولِ) اللَّحْمِ (نَجِسٌ) نَجَاسَةً مُخَفَّفَةً، وَطَهَّرَهُ مُحَمَّدٌ (وَلَا يُشْرَبُ) بَوْلُهُ (أَصْلًا) لَا لِلتَّدَاوِي وَلَا لِغَيْرِهِ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ. اُخْتُلِفَ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ وَظَاهِرُ الْمَذْهَبِ الْمَنْعُ كَمَا فِي رَضَاعٍ الْبَحْرُ، لَكِنْ نَقَلَ الْمُصَنِّفُ ثَمَّةَ وَهُنَا عَنْ الْحَاوِي: وَقِيلَ يُرَخَّصُ إذَا عُلِمَ فِيهِ الشِّفَاءُ وَلَمْ يُعْلَمْ دَوَاءٌ آخَرُ كَمَا رُخِّصَ الْخَمْرُ لِلْعَطْشَانِ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى

[قال ابن عابدين] (قَوْلُهُ اُخْتُلِفَ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ) فَفِي النِّهَايَةِ عَنْ الذَّخِيرَةِ يَجُوزُ إنْ عَلِمَ فِيهِ شِفَاءً وَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ دَوَاءً آخَرَ. وَفِي الْخَانِيَّةِ ...أَنَّ مَا فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ كَمَا يَحِلُّ الْخَمْرُ لِلْعَطْشَانِ فِي الضَّرُورَةِ، وَكَذَا اخْتَارَهُ صَاحِبُ الْهِدَايَةِ فِي التَّجْنِيسِ...وَهَذَا؛ لِأَنَّ الْحُرْمَةَ سَاقِطَةٌ عِنْدَ الِاسْتِشْفَاءِ كَحِلِّ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْتَةِ لِلْعَطْشَانِ وَالْجَائِعِ. اهـ

(رد المحتار علي الدر المختار، ج ١، ص ٢١٠، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)

[4] Al-Quran, Surah al-Isrā (17):70

[5] م: (وحرمة الانتفاع بأجزاء الآدمي لكرامته) ش: يتعلق بقوله: أو الآدمي، والمعنى بخلاف جلد الخنزير فإنه لا يطهر بالدباغ لنجاسة عينه، وجلد الآدمي لكرامته؛ لأن الله تعالى كرمه، وفي استعمال جلده ابتذال له

(البناية شرح الهداية، ج ١، ص ٣١٢، المكتبة الحقانية)

 

[قال الحصكفي] (وَآدَمِيٍّ) فَلَا يُدْبَغُ لِكَرَامَتِهِ، وَلَوْ دُبِغَ طَهُرَ وَإِنْ حَرُمَ اسْتِعْمَالُهُ

(رد المحتار علي الدر المختار، ج ١، ص ٢٠٤، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)

[6] Al-Quran, Surah al-Baqarah (2):173

[7] Al-Quran, Surah al-An'ām (6):145

[8] [قال صدر الشريعة] يطهر بدن المصلي وثوبه ومكانه عن نجس مرئي

[قال اللكهنوي] قوله عن نجس...وهو علي ضربين: مرئية وغير مرئية، فالأول ما يبقي متجسدة ومنجمدة بعد الجفاف كالدم والغائط والمني...

(عمدة الرعاية علي شرح الوقاية، ج ١، ص ٥٤٧، دار الكتب العلمية)

[9] [قال صاحب الهداية] وَالسَّابِعُ حُرْمَةُ الِانْتِفَاعِ بِهَا؛ لِأَنَّ الِانْتِفَاعَ بِالنَّجَسِ حَرَامٌ، وَلِأَنَّهُ وَاجِبُ الِاجْتِنَابِ وَفِي الِانْتِفَاعِ بِهِ اقْتِرَابٌ.

[قال البابرتي] وَقَوْلُهُ (وَالسَّابِعُ حُرْمَةُ الِانْتِفَاعِ بِهَا) يُرِيدُ التَّدَاوِيَ بِالِاحْتِقَانِ وَسَقْيَ الدَّوَابِّ وَالْإِقْطَارَ فِي الْإِحْلِيلِ

(العناية شرح الهداية، ج ٦، ص ١٧٦، دار الكتب العلمية)

 

قال: ويكره شرب دردي الخمر والامتشاط به لأن فيه أجزاء الخمر والانتفاع بالمحرم حرام، ولهذا لا يجوز أن يداوي به جرحا أو دبرة دابة، ولا أن يسقي ذميا، ولا أن يسقي صبيا للتداوي

[قال العيني] (إجزاء الخمر والانتفاع بالمحرم حرام، ولهذا لا يجوز أن يداوي به) ش: أي بالخمر م: (جرحا) ش: لحديث ابن مسعود - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ -: «إن الله لم يجعل شفاءكم فيما حرم عليكم»...(ولا أن يسقي ذميا) ش: أي ولا يجوز، لأن فيه اقترابا للخمر، وهو مأمور بالاجتناب عنه وإعانة على المعصية م: (ولا أن يسقي صبيا للتداوي) ش: أي ولا يجوز أن يسقي صبيا لأجل التداوي لما ذكرنا من حديث ابن مسعود

(البناية شرح الهداية، ج ١٥، ص ١٣٩، المكتبة الحقانية)

[10] Al-Quran, Surah al-Baqarah (2):173. The second verse (6:145) also contains a meaning to the same effect.

[11] التداوي بالمحرم عند الضرورة: مسئلة: اختلفوا إذا كانت الميتة (ونحوها من المحرمات) يحتاج الي تناولها للعلاج، إما بانفرادها أو بوقوعها في بعض الأدوية المركبة، فأباحه بعضوم للنص والمعني. أما النص فهو أنه صلي الله عليه و سلم أباح للعرنيين شرب أبوال الأبل وألبانها للتداوي (متفق عليه) وأما المعني فمن وجوه: أنه تعالي أباح أكل الميتة لمصلحة النفس...

(أحكام القرآن لظفر أحمد العثماني، ج ١، ص ١٢٨، إدارة القرآن والعلوم الإسلامية)

[12] In'āmul Bārī, vol. 2, pg. 370-371, Maktabah al-Hirā;

Tuhfatul al-Ma'ī, vol. 1, pg. 317-318, Maktabah Hijāz Deoband

 

ويستدل عليه بأن مرض العرنيين وشفاءهم مروي في الروايات، فلم لا نقول بالتداوي؟ وهو عن النخعي عند الطحاوي، وعن الزهري عند البخاري فتحولت المسألة إلى التداوي بالمحرم، فقال الطحاوي وتبعه البيهقي: يجوز التداوي بغير المسكر لا به، ولم ينسبه الطحاوي إلى أحد من أئمتنا الثلاثة وأما أهل مذهبنا فمضطربون؛ ففي رضاع البحر: أن أصل مذهبنا عدم جواز التداوي بالمحرم، وجوزه مشائخنا بقيود

(العرف الشذي، ج ١، ص ١٢٢، دار الكتب العلمية)

 

التداوي بالمحرم عند الضرورة: مسئلة: اختلفوا إذا كانت الميتة (ونحوها من المحرمات) يحتاج الي تناولها للعلاج، إما بانفرادها أو بوقوعها في بعض الأدوية المركبة، فأباحه بعضوم للنص والمعني. أما النص فهو أنه صلي الله عليه و سلم أباح للعرنيين شرب أبوال الأبل وألبانها للتداوي (متفق عليه) وأما المعني فمن وجوه: أنه تعالي أباح أكل الميتة لمصلحة النفس...

(أحكام القرآن لظفر أحمد العثماني، ج ١، ص ١٢٨، إدارة القرآن والعلوم الإسلامية)

[13] Sahih al-Bukharī, 233, The Book of Wudu'.

[14] Sunan at-Tirmidhi, 72, The Book of Purification

 

[15] [قال الحصكفي] (وَبَوْلُ مَأْكُولِ) اللَّحْمِ (نَجِسٌ) نَجَاسَةً مُخَفَّفَةً، وَطَهَّرَهُ مُحَمَّدٌ (وَلَا يُشْرَبُ) بَوْلُهُ (أَصْلًا) لَا لِلتَّدَاوِي وَلَا لِغَيْرِهِ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ. اُخْتُلِفَ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ وَظَاهِرُ الْمَذْهَبِ الْمَنْعُ كَمَا فِي رَضَاعٍ الْبَحْرُ، لَكِنْ نَقَلَ الْمُصَنِّفُ ثَمَّةَ وَهُنَا عَنْ الْحَاوِي: وَقِيلَ يُرَخَّصُ إذَا عُلِمَ فِيهِ الشِّفَاءُ وَلَمْ يُعْلَمْ دَوَاءٌ آخَرُ كَمَا رُخِّصَ الْخَمْرُ لِلْعَطْشَانِ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى

[قال ابن عابدين] (قَوْلُهُ اُخْتُلِفَ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ) فَفِي النِّهَايَةِ عَنْ الذَّخِيرَةِ يَجُوزُ إنْ عَلِمَ فِيهِ شِفَاءً وَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ دَوَاءً آخَرَ. وَفِي الْخَانِيَّةِ ...أَنَّ مَا فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ كَمَا يَحِلُّ الْخَمْرُ لِلْعَطْشَانِ فِي الضَّرُورَةِ، وَكَذَا اخْتَارَهُ صَاحِبُ الْهِدَايَةِ فِي التَّجْنِيسِ...وَهَذَا؛ لِأَنَّ الْحُرْمَةَ سَاقِطَةٌ عِنْدَ الِاسْتِشْفَاءِ كَحِلِّ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْتَةِ لِلْعَطْشَانِ وَالْجَائِعِ. اهـ مِنْ الْبَحْرِ. وَأَفَادَ سَيِّدِي عَبْدُ الْغَنِيِّ أَنَّهُ لَا يَظْهَرُ الِاخْتِلَافُ فِي كَلَامِهِمْ لِاتِّفَاقِهِمْ عَلَى الْجَوَازِ لِلضَّرُورَةِ...أَقُولُ: وَهُوَ ظَاهِرٌ مُوَافِقٌ لِمَا مَرَّ فِي الِاسْتِدْلَالِ، لِقَوْلِ الْإِمَامِ: لَكِنْ قَدْ عَلِمْت أَنَّ قَوْلَ الْأَطِبَّاءِ لَا يَحْصُلُ بِهِ الْعِلْمُ. وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّ التَّجْرِبَةَ يَحْصُلُ بِهَا غَلَبَةُ الظَّنِّ دُونَ الْيَقِينِ إلَّا أَنْ يُرِيدُوا بِالْعِلْمِ غَلَبَةَ الظَّنِّ وَهُوَ شَائِعٌ فِي كَلَامِهِمْ تَأَمَّلْ...

(رد المحتار علي الدر المختار، ج ١، ص ٢١٠، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)

 

[قال الحصكفي] (وَلَمْ يُبَحْ الْإِرْضَاعُ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ) لِأَنَّهُ جَزْءُ آدَمِيٍّ وَالِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ ضَرُورَةٍ حَرَامٌ عَلَى الصَّحِيحِ شَرْحُ الْوَهْبَانِيَّةِ.

[قال ابن عابدين] وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ لَا يَجُوزُ فِي ظَاهِرِ الْمَذْهَبِ، أَصْلُهُ بَوْلُ مَا يُؤْكَلُ لَحْمُهُ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُشْرَبُ أَصْلًا. اهـ.

(رد المحتار علي الدر المختار، ج ٣، ص ٢١١، ايج ايم سعيد كمبني)

Question:

I would like to know if its permissible to use the baltic amber products.

I've provide some info about it.

Baltic amber for pain relief

For many centuries, man looked to gemstones, crystals, and other "mystical" substances to provide all sorts of remedies from preventing illnesses to bringing us good luck to thwarting evil spirits. In the world of modern science, however, we have been able to separate the "myths" from the facts. What makes it even more interesting is that the legend that became a reality existed millions of years ago and is respected today as one of the most amazing "gems" that ever lived...natural Baltic Amber. Here, you're not only going to get a history lesson but you're going to be impressed with a phenomenon.

 

Natural Baltic Amber began it's life in ancient times when giant pine trees shed their resin which then joined with the earth and gradually migrated in the soil to the sea carrying along with it tiny fragments of insects and plant life. Never a "gem", Baltic Amber has always been considered a fossilized resin with some amazing capabilities.

 

Pain relief is one of the main reasons people use natural Baltic amber. Though the resin itself isn't a painkiller, its succinic acid is believed to have analgesic properties that take the edge off of pain. Baltic amber has been used to alleviate all types of pain, from mild to severe.

There are so many ways in which you can benefit from Baltic amber. Some think of amber as a powerful "chakra"...a cleanser and healer. Some clients give testimony to the fact that wearing healing amber necklace provides amazing pain relief for head, neck and throat areas, most especially for congestion. Amber healing bracelets are used to help control and alleviate pain of rheumatism, arthritis, and aching muscles and joints. Amber may even restore energy, strengthen the immune system and promote general wellness.

 

Of course scientists debunked the idea that healing powers could come from such a humble source. That is until they spent years researching and discovered the little creatures inside the amber were, in fact, millions of years old. So if that were the case, and Baltic Amber survived all those years until now - then it certainly could be "true" magic and then some.

 

Unfortunately the quantity of natural Baltic Amber is become more and more scarce. It will become even more valuable as a result, especially for the millions of people around the world who use it for it's widely varied healing abilities. If you haven't explored what natural Baltic Amber can do, it's time you did. "Amber for All" has some exceptional amber healing jewellery so that everyone from children to adults and to the golden generation can benefit in ways they never imagined. Perhaps you'll be one of them.

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullahi wa-barakatuh.

Formed over 45 million years ago, Baltic amber is an organic substance, a “fossil resin” produced by pine trees which grew in Northern Europe - from southern regions of the present day Scandinavia and nearby regions of the bed of the Baltic Sea. The climate became warmer and trees started to exude big amounts of resin. Scientists say that amber is a fossil pine resin from this region that has achieved a stable state through oxidation.



From a chemical point of view, amber consists of 79 percent carbon, 10.5 percent hydrogen and 10.5 percent oxygen. Studies with a mass spectrometer have shown that amber contains over 40 compounds as well as succinic acids and additive salts of potassium, sodium and iron. Amber extends over three groups of compounds: volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes, soluble, organic acids and also non-soluble polyether. It ranges from bright yellow to dark yellow or brownish-orange, depending on its age and where it is found, in seldom cases it is either red or blue.

Only a small quantity of amber is clear, because of the effects of the sun, most of it is opaque. It takes an electrical charge when it is rubbed and develops a pleasant resinous smell when it is burnt. Learned scholars and scientists disagreed with each other for a long time about the origin and properties of amber. The history of its origin was only clearly researched in the 19th century. Enclosures, such as water bubbles, gas bubbles, pieces of bark, twigs, plant seeds and even insects and small animals unmistakably show its origin and give it its characteristic appearance.

Man's interest in amber’s secret properties date back to the Paleolithic Age. The exceptional smell of amber burning and the beauty of the nuggets washed up on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Over time, it has been proven that the properties of Baltic amber are very beneficial to humans.

Amber warms to the touch and exudes a nice, relaxing fragrance in the palm of your hand. It is also the only fossil resin that contains 3-8% succinic acid (mostly located in the amber’s surface layer), a powerful therapeutic substance with many applications for healing. Plants absorbed the amber resin and plant leavers were often used as an antibiotic to heal cuts and or in a plaster to dress wounds.

When amber is touched with fire, it produces an aroma of burning pine. Also, amber electrifies negatively and it is still alive because its internal metamorphosis is still incomplete.[1]

 

Based on the above description, Baltic Amber is used as a natural method of healing for the body, for fragrance and aroma. During its drastic metamorphosis, Tabdeel-e-Mahiyyaat (change of its original state) takes place which then makes it pure. Baltic Amber is therefore permissible to use for natural healing, pain relief, congestion, rheumatism, arthritis, aching muscles and joints, energy, strengthening the immune system and to promote general wellness. Baltic Amber bracelets and necklaces may also be used for natural healing.[2]

 

And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

 

Ismaeel Bassa            

Student Darul Iftaa

Durban South Africa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net



[2] 1} وَالْعَنْبَرِ (قَوْلُهُ طَاهِرٌ حَلَالٌ) ؛ لِأَنَّهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ دَمًا فَقَدْ تَغَيَّرَ فَيَصِيرُ طَاهِرًا كَرَمَادِ الْعَذِرَةِ خَانِيَّةٌ، وَالْمُرَادُ بِالتَّغَيُّرِ الِاسْتِحَالَةُ إلَى الطَّيِّبَةِ وَهِيَ مِنْ الْمُطَهَّرَاتِ عِنْدَنَا، وَزَادَ قَوْلَهُ حَلَالٌ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَلْزَمُ مِنْ الطَّهَارَةِ الْحِلُّ كَمَا فِي التُّرَابِ مِنَحٌ: أَيْ فَإِنَّ التُّرَابَ طَاهِرٌ وَلَا يَحِلُّ أَكْلُهُ { الدر المختار، ج 1، ص 209}

 

2} أَمَّا الْمُطَيِّبُ مِنْهُ كَالْبَنَفْسَجِ وَالزَّنْبَقِ وَمَا أَشْبَهَهُمَا يَجِبُ بِاسْتِعْمَالِهِ الدَّمُ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ طِيبٌ، وَهَذَا إذَا اسْتَعْمَلَهُ عَلَى وَجْهِ التَّطَيُّبِ، وَلَوْ دَاوَى بِهِ جُرْحَهُ أَوْ شُقُوقَ رِجْلَيْهِ فَلَا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِطِيبٍ فِي نَفْسِهِ إنَّمَا هُوَ أَصْلُ الطِّيبِ أَوْ طِيبٌ مِنْ وَجْهِ فَيُشْتَرَطُ اسْتِعْمَالُهُ عَلَى وَجْهِ التَّطَيُّبِ، بِخِلَافِ مَا إذَا تَدَاوَى بِالْمِسْكِ وَمَا أَشْبَهَهُ.

ألعناية:

وَهُوَ ظَاهِرٌ. وَقَوْلُهُ: (بِخِلَافِ مَا إذَا تَدَاوَى بِالْمِسْكِ وَمَا أَشْبَهَهُ) كَالْعَنْبَرِ وَالْكَافُورِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا طِيبٌ بِنَفْسِهَا فَيَجِبُ الدَّمُ بِاسْتِعْمَالِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ عَلَى وَجْهِ التَّدَاوِي { البناية شرح الهداية، ج 1، ص 27,28}.

 

3} وَإِنْ ادَّهَنَ بِشَحْمٍ أَوْ سَمْنٍ فَلَا شَيْءَ عَلَيْهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِطِيبٍ فِي نَفْسِهِ، وَلَا أَصْلَ لِلطِّيبِ بِدَلِيلِ أَنَّهُ لَا يُطَيَّبُ بِإِلْقَاءِ الطِّيبِ فِيهِ، وَلَا يَصِيرُ طِيبًا بِوَجْهٍ، وَقَدْ قَالَ أَصْحَابُنَا: إنَّ الْأَشْيَاءَ الَّتِي تُسْتَعْمَلُ فِي الْبَدَنِ عَلَى ثَلَاثَةِ أَنْوَاعٍ: نَوْعٌ هُوَ طِيبٌ مَحْضٌ مُعَدٌّ لِلتَّطَيُّبِ بِهِ كَالْمِسْكِ وَالْكَافُورِ، وَالْعَنْبَرِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ، وَتَجِبُ بِهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ عَلَى أَيِّ وَجْهٍ اُسْتُعْمِلَ حَتَّى قَالُوا: لَوْ دَاوَى عَيْنَهُ بِطِيبٍ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ؛ لِأَنَّ الْعَيْنَ عُضْوٌ كَامِلٌ اسْتَعْمَلَ فِيهِ الطِّيبَ فَتَجِبُ الْكَفَّارَةُ، وَنَوْعٌ لَيْسَ بِطِيبٍ بِنَفْسِهِ وَلَا فِيهِ مَعْنَى الطِّيبِ، وَلَا يَصِيرُ طِيبًا بِوَجْهٍ كَالشَّحْمِ فَسَوَاءٌ أُكِلَ أَوْ اُدُّهِنَ بِهِ أَوْ جُعِلَ فِي شُقَاقِ الرِّجْلِ لَا تَجِبُ الْكَفَّارَة { بدائع الصائع، ج 2، ص 190}ُ.

 

KHARWASTAN

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